Cause and effect essay是说明文中的一个重要体裁。在开篇段落的撰写上，不同essay之间其实大同小异。本文以因果文的开篇段落为例，说明Funnel introduction漏斗开篇段的写法。
例文是一篇题为Effects of Socially-Constructed Stress on Women's Health因果文的开篇段。来自MICUSP语料库，是由在美国大学读书的本科生撰写。全文讨论了社会压力对女性健康造成的影响，是被评为优秀的作业。
整段共有八句话，前七句为general statements, 最后一句是thesis statement。我们将整段按句子为单位分开，分句阅读，看作者是如何从general statements过渡到thesis statements的。
In our lives, we all experience stress; these stress come from many factors that include the urgency to perform under pressure, to need to do well in school or at the workplace, or from the multi-faceted roles that we must play within our lives.
以生活中的压力作为切入点。（Stress in life）
Being a sister, daughter, a team player, a mother, and a wife can cause one to feel overwhelmed.
自然而然的说到女生在生活中的压力。(women’s stress in life)
Although both men and women experience stress, the negative impacts on health as a result of exposure to stress are different.
从女性的生活压力过度到压力对男女造成负面影响的差异。(Differences in effects of stress on men and women)
One reason is due to the difference in physiological characteristics such as the presence of reproductive system and its associated hormones in women but not in men.
Another factor contributing to the difference is due to the fact that each sex faces unique and different quantities of socially-constructed stress such as a woman expected to become a mother.
Socially-constructed stress is the stress implemented by society based on gender role expectations with culture being a major contributor.
Many stressors that women endure tend to be chronic or repeated nature while for men, the stress is more acute.
再讲到社会压力的性别差异。(Gender differences in social stressors)
The negative impact of socially constructed stress on women causes a wide range of health issues that can be both physiologically and psychologically.
陈述文章的具体话题，社会压力对女性健康的影响。(Effects of social stress on women's health)
·Stress in life
·Women’s stress in life
·Differences in effects of stress on men and women
·Gender differences in social stressors
·Effects of social stress on women's health